3Enhancing ownership and sustainability. A resource book on participation.
Easy to use fact sheets on participatory methods and tools for extension produced by MEAS:
Knowledge Solutions, www.adb.org/publications/series/knowledge-solutions
International Institute for Rural Reconstruction, www.iirr.org
Participatory rural development is the mission of IIRR. Often their tools are embedded in case studies.
- Advancing Participatory Technology Development: Case studies on Integration into Agricultural Research, Extension and Education
This publication includes a selection of 12 case studies on institutionalizing Participatory Technology Development (PTD) approaches in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It shows how various organizations in agricultural research, extension and education have attempted to integrate PTD into their day-to-day operations, decision-making and culture.
The case studies included in this publication were generated as part of a study conducted in 2001 and were presented at international workshop held at IIRR in the Philippines. IIRR worked in partnership with ETC Ecoculture of the Netherlands in producing this publication, with funding support from the ACP-EU Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA). View this item; available as PDF at www.prolinnova.net/sites/default/files/documents/resources/institutionalisation_in_nrm/advancing_participatory_technology_development.pdf
Though dated, these 23 methods have not changed: www.fao.org/docrep/x5307e/x5307e00.HTM
- Pretty, J. and S. Vodouhê. Chapter 6 – Using rapid or participatory rural appraisal. Improving agricultural extension – a reference manual. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Another older FAO source, more of an overview of PLA in extension- describes multiple tools: www.fao.org/docrep/w5830e/w5830e08.htm
- Chambers, R. (2007). From PRA to PLA and Pluralism: Practice and Theory. Working Paper 286. Sussex: Institute of Development Studies.
- Chambers, R. (2007). Whose Reality Counts? Notes for Participants. Working Paper 286. Sussex: Institute of Development Studies.
- Odour-Noah, Asamba, et al. (1992). Implementing PRA : A Handbook to Facilitate PRA. Worcester, USA: USAID/Clark University.
- This handbook goes through the stages of implementing PRA from “getting started” through visits to other projects, to “data gathering, problem analysis, mobilizing external support and handling money”. Each stage is broken down into suggested activities and illustrated with detailed case-studies. Several sections would make useful training material – for example, internal problems are explored through case-studies of “A Controversial Chief” and “Water and Posho Mills Don’t Mix.” PRA methods are not described as the emphasis is on PRA as a whole process. (Annotation taken from:http://www.participatorymethods.org/resource/implementing-pra-handbook-facilitate-pra).
- The selections below are some key general texts on PRA/RRA, as background information, extracted from the database of the British Library for Development Studies. Taken from Annotated Bibliography on Gender, Rapid Rural Appraisal and Participatory Rural Appraisal. Compiled for Environment, WID and other Global Issues Division, Planning Department, Japan International Cooperation Agency. July 1994.
- Chambers, R. (1992). Rural appraisal: rapid, relaxed and participatory. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, 1992.
- Hassin – Brack, J. (1988). Rapid rural appraisal : annotated bibliography. [Vol.2]; for Nutrition Economics Group, Technical Assistance Division, Office of International Cooperation and Development, United States Department of Agriculture,[United States] : Nutrition in Agriculture Network.
- Inglis, A. (1992). A tale of two approaches : conventional questionnaire surveys vs PRA. London. Social Forestry Network, Overseas Development Institute Rural Development Forestry Network.
- International Institute for Environment and Development. Sustainable Agriculture Programme (1988). RRA notes. No. 1 (June 1988). London: IIED.
- Kumar, K., ed. (1993). Rapid appraisal methods. Washington D.C. : World Bank, 1993
- McCracken, J, Pretty, J. Conway, Gordon R. (1988) An introduction to rapid rural appraisal for agricultural development, London : IIED.
- Rahman, M. (1993). People’s self – development : perspectives on participatory action research : a journey through experience. London : Zed Books,
- Theis, J, and Grady, H. (1991). Participatory rapid appraisal for community development : a training manual based on experiences in the Middle East and North Africa. London : IIED.
Participatory Rural Appraisal Tools
- Food and Agriculture Organization. PRA Toolbox. Conducting a PRA Training and Modifying PRA Tools to Your Needs: An Example from a Participatory Household Food Security and Nutrition Project in Ethiopia. Retrieved from:http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x5996e/x5996e06.htm.
- Taken from the FAO website, this PRA toolbox is a compendium of PRA tools used in the field.
- IFAD, ANGOC, and IIRR. (2001). Enhancing Ownership and Sustainability: A Resource Book on Participation. International Fund for Agricultural Development, Asian NGO Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, and International Institute for Rural Reconstruction. Published in the Philippines and India.
- Presents an array of tools and participatory processes, based on actual experiences in the field. Useful for development managers and trainers involved in project management.
- Vermeulen, S. (2005). Power Tools: Handbook to tools and resources for policy influence in natural resource management. London: IIED. Retrieved from: http://www.unpei.org/sites/default/files/PDF/stakeholderengagement/Power-tools-Handbook-tools.pdf.
- A manual from the International Institute of Environment and Development (IIED). Presents range of tools and provides directions for adaptation. Also discusses concepts on power, marginalization, and empowerment.
Participatory Rural Appraisal – Training Material from MANAGE
PRA is not a panacea and would not solve all the problems in the world, but it does open up some ways of trying to tackle these challenges (Chambers, 1997). PRA sounds exciting and promising. All those who have used it find it quite fascinating and even addictive. Each application proves to be a unique learning experience. It highlights the need for following an open and flexible approach. More than just a methodology to interact with people and a set of methods, most of the facilitators strive to make PRA and the basic attitudes associated with it-open mindedness, flexibility, giving more opportunities to others to explore themselves, respect for others and their approach to their lives. […]
- Van Mele, P. and Zakaria, A.K.M. 2002. The Innovation Tree: a new PRA tool to reveal the innovation adoption and diffusion process. PLA Notes, 45, 54-58. Read article ›